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Bibliography

Particularly relevant or helpful sources have been bolded.
 
“Amanda Palmer Is Creating with No Intermission.” Patreon, https://www.patreon.com/amandapalmer. Accessed 29 Nov. 2020.
 
Examined and linked to provide insight into the logical extreme of the ‘parasocial’ Patreon model and how creators promote themselves through it.
 
“Ava’s Demon: Book Two.” Kickstarter, https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/avas-demon-reborn/avas-demon-book-two. Accessed 29 Nov. 2020.
 
Examined and linked to get a sense of a standard successful book-printing campaign through Kickstarter.
 
Bergin, J. “The Rocky Journey of Hiveswap’s Development.” Cultured Vultures, 24 July 2017, https://culturedvultures.com/rocky-journey-hiveswaps-development/.
 
Informal but ultimately informative article about the narrative behind Hiveswap‘s development, giving insight into the life of successful Kickstarter-funded projects once they enter a development phase.
 
Conditt, Jessica. “The Crowdfunded Cult of Amanda Palmer.” Engadget, 13 Dec 2019. https://www.engadget.com/2019-12-13-amanda-palmer-patreon-kickstarter-social-media.html. 
 
This article is very clearly an opinion piece, but it provides a useful example of backlash to Amanda Palmer’s Patreon campaign and 
 
“Check, Please!: Year Two.” Kickstarter, https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/276501805/check-please-year-two. Accessed 29 Nov. 2020.
 
Alongside Ava’s Demon, provided as an example of a book-printing Kickstarter campaign. 
 
Dale, Brady. “Webcomic Star KC Green on Why He Killed GUNSHOW, The Comic That Launched Him.” Observer, 7 July 2015, https://observer.com/2015/07/kc-green-gunshow-kickstarter-back-pinocchio/.
 
Personal insight from a longterm webcomic creator on the process behind choosing to let go of longterm projects, as well as the creative freedom offered by having a Patreon.

Dale, Brady. “Patreon, Webcomics and Getting By.” Observer, 17 Nov. 2015, https://observer.com/2015/11/patreon-webcomics-and-getting-by/.

Part of a highly useful cultural study of webcomics, this one explores the way that Patreon has changed the monetization of webcomics for several members of the business.

Dale, Brady. “The Changing Internet Through Webcomics.” Observer, Nov. 2015, https://observer.com/2015/11/webcomics-and-the-changing-web/.

Insights into the ways that changing emphasis points for the Internet – the death of forums, the rise of social media as opposed to individualized websites, etc – have altered the shape of today’s Internet landscape. 

Dale, Brady. “The Webcomics Business Is Moving on From Webcomics.” Observer, 16 Nov. 2015, https://observer.com/2015/11/webcomics-changing-business-model/.

Commentary on the movement to traditional comics by many members of the webcomic industry.

Ellis, Lindsay. “YouTube: Manufacturing Authenticity (For Fun and Profit!)” YouTube, 11 Sept. 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8FJEtCvb2Kw&feature=emb_title.

Personal video essay that proved useful for defining and contextualizing the self-marketing that creators engage in on social media, and its potential emotional costs.

Ferguson, Cat. “Webcomics: An Oral History.” The Verge, 5 Apr. 2019, https://www.theverge.com/2019/4/5/18295369/webcomics-xkcd-questionable-content-dinosaur-comics-90s-internet-social-media.

Indispensable resource for personal testimonials about the early webcomics industry, as well as an overview of its history.

Harper, David, “Exploring the Unpredictable World of Creating Comics in the Social Media Era.” SKTCHD, 7 Jul 2015, https://sktchd.com/longform/exploring-the-unpredictable-world-of-creating-comics-in-the-social-media-era/.

Informative article and series of interviews about the ways that social media influences traditional comics, especially in the realm of feedback from fans. Relevant to the webcomics world through the overlap between the two, and the greater trends in fan engagement it reflets.

Hauser, Alisa. “Kickstarter Fail: Artist Raises $51K to Publish Books, Burns Them in Alley.” DNAinfo Chicago, 5 Mar. 2014, https://www.dnainfo.com/chicago/20140305/wicker-park/kickstarter-fail-artist-raises-51k-publish-books-burns-them-alley.

News article overviewing a particularly dramatic case of a failed printing campaign through Kickstarter.

“Homestuck Adventure Game.” Kickstarter, https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/14293468/homestuck-adventure-game. Accessed 29 Nov. 2020.
 
Linked as an interesting example of a financially successful webcomic-based Kickstarter campaign that doesn’t list printing as the goal.

Knepper, Brent. “No One Makes a Living on Patreon.” The Outline, 17 Jul 2017. https://theoutline.com/post/2571/no-one-makes-a-living-on-patreon.

Opinion piece featuring critiques of the emotional and temporal commitment that Patreon’s business model requires, especially from a smaller-scale creator.

Kreider, Timothy. “I Am a Meme Now — And So Are You.” Medium, 18 Dec. 2019, https://humanparts.medium.com/i-am-a-meme-now-and-so-are-you-3bae8ecf9971.

Personal essay reflecting the out-of-context virality of a quote from the writer’s other work. Contains poignant reflections on the personal impact of this kind of virality, which is relevant to the way many webcomics enter the public eye.

Palmer, Amanda. HOW PATREON IS CHANGING EVERYTHING. LOVE, AMANDA PALMER – YouTube. 23 Mar 2018. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7oUKUK8Xus&feature=emb_title.

Further example of the tone and technique of Amanda Palmer’s Patreon campaign. 

Plante, Chris. “This Is Fine Creator Explains the Timelessness of His Meme.” The Verge, 5 May 2016, https://www.theverge.com/2016/5/5/11592622/this-is-fine-meme-comic.

Insight into the practical repercussions of virality where Kreider commented on the philosophical, including visibility, financial gain, and lack of context.

VanDerWerff, Emily. “The ‘Backlash’ against Star Wars: The Last Jedi, Explained.” Vox, 18 Dec. 2017, https://www.vox.com/culture/2017/12/18/16791844/star-wars-last-jedi-backlash-controversy.

Linked as an illustration of the extent and spread of backlash and “fan entitlement” as a phenomenon.

Vast Error. “[S] Ellsee: Dance out Your Frustrations.” YouTube, 12 May 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N6DHKPLUHho.

Linked and discussed as an example of non-meme viral content that boosted engagement with a smaller-scale webcomic project.

Weiner, Jonah. “Jack Conte, Patreon, and the Plight of the Creative Class.” Wired, 19 Sep 2019, https://www.wired.com/story/jack-conte-patreon-plight-creative-class/.

Illustrative interview with the co-creator of Patreon, providing insight into the origins of the site, its business model, and the kinds of fan-creator relationships it priveleges. 

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